Wireline service operators offering xDSL services that have DSLAMs in service or plan to place new DSLAMs where the distance from the CO, number of ports, bandwidth demand, and cost make copper a more cost effective choice for backhaul.


Scalable Ethernet backhaul is rapidly displacing NxT1/E1 backhaul for many smaller DSLAMs farther out in the metro where fiber could not be justified.